[box type=” info”] Allah says in the Quran “So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allaah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Sawm (fast) till the nightfall” [al-Baqarah 2:187][/box]
In this verse, Allaah mentions the main things that invalidate the fast, which are eating, drinking and intercourse. The other things that break the fast were mentioned by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in his Sunnah.
There are seven things that break the fast, as follows:
Narrated by Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: A man came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, “I am doomed, O Messenger of Allaah!” He said, “Why are you doomed?” He said, “I had intercourse with my wife (during the day) in Ramadaan.” He said, “Can you free a slave?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you fast for two consecutive months?” He said, “No.” He said, “Can you feed sixty poor persons?” He said, “No.”…
Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1936; Muslim, 1111.
The evidence that masturbation is one of the things that invalidate the fast is the words of Allaah in the hadeeth qudsi in which He says of the fasting person: “He gives up his food and drink and desire for My sake.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1894; Muslim, 1151. Causing ejaculation comes under the heading of the desire which the fasting person gives up.
3-Eating and drinking
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Snuff up water deeply into the nose (when doing wudoo’), except when you are fasting.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 788. If water reaching the stomach via the nose did not invalidate the fast, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would not have told those who are fasting not to snuff up water deeply into the nose.
4-Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking
5-Letting blood by means of cupping and the like
“The cupper and the one to whom cupping is done both break their fast.”
Narrated by Abu Dawood, 2367; Ibn Maajah, 1676. Classed as Saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 2074.
Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever vomits involuntarily does not have to make up the fast, but whoever vomits deliberately let him make up the fast.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 720, classed as Saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 577.
7-Menstruation and nifaas
The scholars are unanimously agreed that it is not permissible for women who are menstruating or bleeding following childbirth to fast and that they should not fast in Ramadaan but should make up missed fasts. If they do fast, their fast is not accepted. ‘Aa’ishah said: “We used to menstruate at the time of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and we were commanded to make up the fasts, but we were not commanded to make up the prayers.” Agreed upon. The one who commanded them thus was the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Abu Sa’eed said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Is it not the case that when one of you menstruates, she does not pray or fast? That is what is meant by lacking in religious commitment.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari.
Source: Taking from islamqa.info with some modification.